# Math

**MATH and SCIENCE 8 (These courses run all year on alternate days)**

Math 8 is intended to reinforce and extend the basic skills of elementary mathematics. Students are expected to have the basic skills in whole numbers, decimal, and fraction operations. The course includes units on exponents, rational numbers, ratios, percent, graphing, measurement, geometry, statistics and solving equations. It is expected that students will use calculators throughout this course.

On completion of this course, students should:

- develop positive attitudes towards math
- become math problem solvers
- communicate and reason mathematically
- use technology
- estimate and use mental math

Science 8 develops four main areas of understanding:

- life processes at the level of the cell
- the structure and behaviour of matter
- properties and behaviour of light
- plate tectonics and processes within the Earth

Many of these concepts will be explored and tested in lab activities.

**MATH 9**

Students will build on math skills they can use at work, in finances and in daily life as well as in future professional applications like scientific research or engineering. More specifically students will explore:

- reasoning with numbers and algebra including working with exponents, solving equations and operations with ploynomials
- doing operations with rational numbers like adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing fractions
- exploring linear relationships, which means graphing and making predictions based on patterns
- proportional reasoning about shapes and measures such as scale diagrams and unit conversions
- analyzing data in situations such as investigating financial questions involving simple interest, savings and budgeting or analyzing the validity of statistical information

**WORKPLACE**

**MATHEMATICS**

This pathway is designed to provide students with the mathematical understandings and critical-thinking skills identified for entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force. Topics include algebra, geometry, measurement, number, statistics and probability.

**FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS**

This pathway is designed to provide students with math skills that will prepare them for university Arts/Humanities or Social Sciences programs which do not include university level math other than Statistics. Foundations courses will give students a chance to explore topics of a practical nature, and apply math to model real world scenarios. A mark of 60% or higher in Foundations and Pre-Calculus Math 10 is recommended as an indicator you have sufficient background for success on the Foundations Math pathway.

**PRE-CALCULUS**

This pathway is designed for students who are planning to study highly technical subjects at university which include first year Calculus and other university level math courses. All units in Pre-Calculus 11/12 provide skills and concepts students need for success in studying Calculus. Please note, if the university program of your choice includes first year Calculus, it is a good idea to take Calculus 12 before leaving high school. A strong mark of 73% or higher in Foundations and Pre-Calculus 10 is a good indicator that you have the necessary skills for success on the Pre-Calculus pathway.

Topics include exploration of the patterns behind many different types of functions (polynomial, radical/root, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic and rational), transformation of functions, combination of functions, solving a variety of equation types, study of higher level trigonometry (unit circle trig for any angle/rotation, radian measures, and basics of trig identities), absolute values, binomial expansion and sequence and series.

**WORKPLACE MATH 10**

This course is aimed at students interested in trades. Topics include puzzles, games, graphing, trigonometry, measurement and conversions, surface area and volume, angles, statistics and financial literacy. In general, students will improve their spatial awareness, analytical and logic skills.

**FOUNDATIONS OF MATH AND PRE-CALCULUS (FMP 10)**

Teacher recommendation: 67% in Math 9

This course is aimed at students interested in academic post-secondary programs. Topics include working with exponents, graphing linear functions, solving linear systems of equations, multiplying and factoring polynomials, trigonometry, probability and financial literacy. Students who plan to apply for technical programs involving the study of first-year Calculus, such as engineering, computer sciences, medical sciences, etc., need to take this course. Check with a counsellor if you have a specific program in mind.

**WORKPLACE MATHEMATICS 11**

Prerequisite: Workplace Math 10 or Foundations of Mathematics 10

Teacher recommendation: for students who have passed Foundations of Math 10 with less than 65%

This option is designed to provide students with the mathematical understanding and critical-thinking skills identified for the entry into the majority of trades and for direct entry into the work force. This course will expand on topics introduced in AWM 10. Topics include understanding and application of the metric and imperial systems to the measurement of 2-D and 3-D objects, geometry, trigonometry, and the fundamentals of income, spending, and debt.

**FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 11 (FOM 11)**

Prerequisite: FMP 10

Teacher recommendation: minimum of 67% in Foundations of Mathematics 10

Foundations of Math 11 gives students a chance to explore a variety of math topics from a fairly practical perspective. Rather than looking at numbers for numbers sake, Foundations will appeal to students who prefer to see how numbers can be used to model real world situations. As part of the Foundations pathway, it is designed for students who plan on applying to Social Sciences or Humanities faculties in university, which do not require any math courses, or require only courses in statistics. Topics in FOM 11 include the logic behind puzzles and games, geometry (angle/triangle/polygon properties), simple trigonometry for non-right triangles (SOHCAHTOA, laws of sine and cosine), basic statistical analysis (measures of central tendency, normal distribution and standard deviation), working with quadratic functions to model data and patterns, using inequalities to solve problems, and looking at rate and scale.

**PRE-CALCULUS 11 (PRECALC 11)**

Teacher recommendation: minimum 73% in Foundations of Math 10

Pre-Calculus 11 specifically prepares students to take Calculus. It gives students a chance to explore math topics from a more abstract perspective, and will appeal to students who really enjoy math, but also includes many problem solving opportunities involving application of math to the "real world." Calculus is the gateway into other higher level math courses in university, and is also usually required of students enrolled in sciences, engineering, computer programming and other technical post-secondary programs. Pre-Calculus may also be a high school prerequisite for many post-secondary medical field professional certification programs such as nursing. Topics include working with quadratic functions, solving quadratic equations, trigonometry involving angles from 0 degrees to 360 degrees, manipulations and operations with radical and rational expressions, absolute value, linear and quadratic systems of equations and problem solving using linear and quadratic inequalities.

**FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS 12 (FOM 12)**

Prerequisite: Foundations of Math 11

Teacher recommendation: Foundations of Math 11 passed with minimum of 67%

Foundations of Math 12 gives students a chance to explore a variety of math topics from a fairly practical perspective. Foundations will appeal to students who prefer to see how numbers can be used practically to model real world situations, but it also gives you a great sampling of a wide variety of math topics, demonstrating the diversity of math beyond Calculus. As part of the Foundations pathway, it is designed for students who plan on applying to Social Sciences or Humanities faculties in university, which do not require math courses, or require only courses in statistics. Topics include finance (lending and borrowing), basic set theory (organizing information using special math notation), counting methods (calculating permutations and combinations), probability (calculating probability and odds of events), and modelling data using several methods.

**PRE-CALCULUS 12 (PRECALC 12)**

Pre-Calculus 12, follows Pre-Calculus 11 and is designed for entry into post secondary study in the fields of Mathematics, Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Commerce. Topics will include Trigonometry, Functions, and Permutations/Combinations/Binomial Theorem.

**CALCULUS 12 *will be offered by video conference in semester 2**

Prerequisite: Pre-Calculus 12

Calculus 12 is a course that exposes students to the concepts found in a typical first year study of University Calculus. Historically, most first year university students struggle in calculus if not previously exposed to the topic. The purpose of this course is to give students an experience of Calculus so that they will find better success in Calculus at the post-secondary level. The course is taught with very little use of graphics calculator technology, as this is the philosophy followed by many university and college level calculus programs. If all concepts for Calculus 12 are completed early, some introductory topics in Linear Algebra (Matrices) will be introduced to students as well.

The general topics covered in this course are:

- Pre-Calculus review
- Limits and Definition of Derivatives
- Derivative Rules and Applications
- Integral Techniques and Applications
- Introduction to Linear Algebra (optional)